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Symbol of Upper Egypt
The flowering lotus was the symbol of Upper Egypt. The flower is firmly linked with the rising and the setting of the sun, and thus to the sun god and the story of creation. The lotus motif is a frequent feature of temple column architecture.
Per-Ankh: Ancient Egypt Sitemap
- Featured Articles
- Featured Articles - The Crowns Of Ancient Egypt
The Crowns Of Ancient Egypt: In Ancient Egypt there were a number of different crowns that could be worn by the Kings, the Gods and the Royal Women. The most frequently depicted were the Red Crown, the White Crown and the Double Crown.
- Featured Articles - Hedjet - The White Crown Of Upper Egypt
The Hedjet or White Crown of Upper Egypt is a tall white conical headpiece and was used in later times to denote the pharaohs rulership of Upper Egypt. The White Crown is thought to have been constructed from reeds and therefore actually green.
- Featured Articles - Amelia Edwards
Amelia Edwards was an Englishwoman who lived in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1873, she left England for an extended walking holiday in France. Unfortunately, once she arrived in France, steady rainfall made it impossible for her to continue her holiday as she had planned.
- Featured Articles - William Matthew Flinders Petrie
William Matthew Flinders Petrie 1853-1942: Petrie, who is known as the Father of Egyptian Archaeology for his innovations and contributions to the field, excavated in Egypt for more than half a century.
- Featured Articles - The Book of the Dead
The Book of the Dead provided instructions and rituals to help the many components of the body of man to reach their destination in the afterlife and to ensure the continued existence and well-being of the spiritual bodies in the afterlife.
- Featured Articles - Legend and History of the Benu Bird
The Benu Bird is linked to that of the phoenix. Both are birds of the sun, both are self created, rather than being born from other creatures, both undergo death and become symbols of regeneration.
- Featured Articles - Women In Religion in Ancient Egypt
The Greek historian and traveller, Heredotus states: No woman holds priestly office either in the service of the goddess or god, only men are priests in both cases.
- Featured Articles - Bast - Eye of Ra
Bast (Bastet), was a feline headed goddess, daughter of Re. She was originally a local deity of Bubastis, but became a national divinity during the XXII Dynasty.
- Featured Articles - The Nile and Ancient Egypt
The Nile and Ancient Egypt: It has been said of Egypt by Heredotus, an ancient Greek traveller, who wrote a history of Egypt, that 'Egypt is the gift of the Nile'.
- Egyptology Books
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Jun/Jul 2006
Ancient Egypt Magazine - Jun/Jul 2006: The latest volume features articles on Ancient Egyptian Wine, New investigations on the residue in wine jars found in the Tomb of Tutankhamun, Belzonis Sarcophagi.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Oct/Nov 2005
The latest volume features articles on the The Temple of Ramesses II at Gerf Hussein, which describes the history of the temple, now partially rebuilt at New Kalabsha.
- Egyptology Books - Egyptian Archaeology Vol 27
The Egyptian Archaeology Magazine is the bulletin of The Egypt Exploration Society. This issue contains features on Mut el-Kharab: Seth's City in the Dakheh Oasis; Satelites and Survey in Middle Egypt.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Dec/Jan 2005
The latest volume contains features on Ancient Egyptian Medicine and literature, Annemarie La Pensée describes how an important artifact from the World Museum Liverpool was replicated.
- Egyptology Books - Egyptian Archaeology Vol 28
The Egyptian Archaeology Magazine is the bulletin of The Egypt Exploration Society.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Feb/Mar 2006
The latest volume features articles on the reign of the little known Pharaoh Neferhotep I, a review of the Egyptian collection in the National Archaeological Museum and a complete Nubian Temple, both in the Spanish capital.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Aug/Sept 2005
Ancient Egypt Magazine - Britain's only dedicated Egyptology magazine. The magazine features articles and book reviews on all aspects of Ancient Egyptian History, People and Culture of the Nile Vallery.
- Egyptology Books - Divine Creatures Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt
Although practiced by other civilizations, mummification is most popularly associated with the ancient Egyptians.
- Egyptology Books - The Mind of Egypt by Jan Assmann
Early on in his masterful reconstruction of the Egyptian mind set, he tells us that "ancient Egypt is an intellectual and spiritual world that is linked to our own by numerous strands of tradition.
- Egyptology Books - An Ancient Egyptian Herbal
An Ancient Egyptian Herbal: This is one of the very few accessible books on the use of herbs and spices used in Ancient Egypt. The introduction covers what the Ancient Egyptians grew in their gardens, and used for food, medicine, incense and cosmetics and perfume, while the rest of the book is devoted to a list of 95 species of plants and trees used in ancient Egypt.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Apr/May 2006
The latest volume features articles on the newly-discovered tomb in the Valley of the Kings, Sinful Barbarians and Part- Time Legionaries.
- Egyptology Books - Magic In Ancient Egypt
Dr Geraldine Pinch, a supervisor of lectures on Egyptology for the faculty of Oriental Studies, Cambridge, provides a clear insight it all aspects of Egyptian magic and its fundamental place among the ancient Egyptians.
- Egyptology Books - Encounters With Ancient Egypt
Encounters With Ancient Egypt: A Series of 8 books looking at different aspects of Ancient Egypt.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - April/May 2009
Ancient Egypt Magazine - April/May 2009: Tomb KV63 in the Valley of the Kings, News from the winter excavation season in Egypt, Dental Health and Dentistry in Ancient Egypt, Luxor Temples Mosque, Egypts Eastern Desert, Mummification and the Work of the Egypt Exploration Society.
- Egyptology Books - Egyptian Archaeology Vol 36
Egyptian Archaeology Vol 36: The Egyptian Archaeology Magazine is the bulletin of The Egypt Exploration Society.
- Egyptology Books - The Pharaohs by Dr Joyce Tyldesley
The Pharaohs by Dr Joyce Tyldesley is an illustrated history of the kings who ruled over this extraordinary land, narrating the story of 30 dynasties starting around 3100 BC when the first pharaoh, Menes, unified Upper and Lower Egypt, and ending with the conquest of Egypt in 332 BC by Alexander the Great.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Apr/May 2010
Ancient Egypt Magazine - Apr/May 2010: The latest volume features articles on: New excavations in the tombs of the Nobles at Luxor, excavations at the tomb of Karakhamun at Thebes. Craig Milner looks at the model boats found in a Middle Kingdom tomb at Deir el- Bersha.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Aug/Sept 2009
Ancient Egypt Magazine - Aug/Sept 2009: The Temple of Montu at El Tod, The Missing Sarcophagus of Menkaura, Ancient Egypt at Highclere Castle, The Seth-animal: a Dog and its Master, The Egypt Exploration Society
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Feb/Mar 2010
Ancient Egypt Magazine - Feb/Mar 2010: How a fragment of a statue from Saqqara has helped to identify a well-known statue in the British Museum. The geology and antiquities of Egypts Eastern Desert. Investigating Early Mummification, the origins of mummification in Egypt.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - Dec 2009/Jan 2010
Ancient Egypt Magazine - Dec 2009/Jan 2010: A Relief of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III in Bournemouth. Bob Partridge proposes some possible reasons for the introduction of mummification and dispels some myths. An exploration of the geology and antiquities of Egypts Eastern Desert by Colin Reader.
- Egyptology Books - Ancient Egypt Magazine - June/July 2009
Ancient Egypt Magazine - June/July 2009: The Mosque of Abu Hagag, Dental Health & Dentistry in Ancient Egypt, KV-63 Update: 2009 Seaso, Egypt Exploration Society and The Delta Survey, The Open Air Museum at Karnak Temple, and Tutankhamuns Headrests.
- Per-Ankh - Per-Ankh: Ancient Egypt Website
Welcome to the Per-Ankh: Ancient Egypt and Egyptology Resources Website.
- Temples & Tombs
- Temples & Tombs - Temple of Hatshepsut
Temple of Hatshepsut: Only a few women ruled ancient Egypt as Pharaohs, and among them the most important was Queen Hatshepsut of the `New Kingdom,' which had such great pharaohs as Amenhotep, Thutmose and Tutankhamun. Her rule (1473-1458 B.C.) saw the construction of magnificent temples dedicated to ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses.
- Temples & Tombs - Colossi of Memnon
Colossi of Memnon: Valley of the Kings: These huge statues (19.5m), are the only part of the ancient mortuary temple built in Thebes by Amenhotep III (18th dyn) that remains today.
- Temples & Tombs - The Dakhleh Oasis Project
The Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) is a long-term regional study of the interaction between environmental changes and human activity in the closed area of the Dakhleh Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt, but including the larger area of the Palaeoasis.
- Art & Sculpture
- Art & Sculpture - Cleopatra's Needle
Art & Sculpture: Cleopatra's Needle: Carved from a single block of red granite which was said to have been quarried at Aswan, the obelisk is 68ft 5½ inches in height (20.87m) and weighs 186 tons.
- Literature & Hieroglyphs
- Literature & Hieroglyphs - Ancient Egyptian Literature: Wisdom Texts
The wisdom literature can be found throughout all periods of ancient Egyptian history from the Old Kingdom through to the New Kingdom. Much of the literature of ancient Egypt deals with the state religion, the relationship between the gods and the king.
- Religion & Afterlife
- Religion & Afterlife - The Ogdoad of Hermopolis
The Ogdoad of Hermopolis: a system of eight deities, four gods and their respective consorts. The two that became the most prominent in later times were Nun and Amon.
- Religion & Afterlife - Ancient Egyptian Medicine and Magic
Ancient Egyptian medicine, it is important to note, is made up of what we would call rational treatments and magic. This is a modern division of ancient Egyptian medicine and certainly the ancient Egyptians themselves would not thought this way.
- Gods And Goddesses
- Gods And Goddesses - Hapi - God of the Nile Inundation
Hapi - God of the Nile Inundation: As a water god, Hapi was a deity of fertility. He is depicted as a blue or green man with the false beard of the pharaoh on his chin and having large pendulous breasts and paunch.
- Gods And Goddesses - Thoth - Lord of the Sacred Words
Thoth - Lord of the Sacred Words: The most popular and enduring of all the gods, Thoth has been responsible for keeping Egyptian magic in the forefront of learning since the collapse of the empire.
- Gods And Goddesses - Mandulis - Sun God of Lower Nubia
Mandulis - Sun God of Lower Nubia: Depicted wearing a crown of rams horns surmounted by high plumes, sun disks and cobras.
- Gods And Goddesses - Satis - Mistress of Elephantine
Satis - Mistress of Elephantine: Goddess guarding the southern frontier and Lower Nubia, killing enemies of the king by her arrows. Depecited wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt adorned with antelope horns or plumes.
- Gods And Goddesses - Bat - Cow Goddess of Upper Egypt
Bat - Cow Goddess of Upper Egypt : Goddess of 7th Nome of Upper Egypt known as the 'Mansion of the sistrum'. Hut, Hut-Sekhem (Diospolis Parva, Hiw) Known as the City of Sistrum.
- Gods And Goddesses - Anubis - Jackal Headed God of Egypt
Anubis - Jackal Headed God of Egypt: Anubis is the God of Cemeteries and Embalming. Anubis is normally seem as a jackal or dog or in jackal-headed human form.
- Pyramid Complexes
- Pyramid Complexes - The Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza
The Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza: Perhaps the most famous of all the Ancient Egyptian monuments, the Sphinx and the Great Pyramids at Giza have come to represent a lasting testimony to the Ancient Egyptian civilisation.
- Events and Resources
- Events and Resources - Egyptology Glossary
Egyptology Glossary: Ancient Egypt and Egyptology has a bewildering array of confusing names and terminology, this Egyptology Glossary will hopefully go some way to describe many of the most common words and phrases.
- Events and Resources - Tours and Travel
Tours and Travel: A list of useful websites that offer tours and travel to Egypt, covering travel agents specialising in Egyptology Tours as well as general visitors to Egypt and the Red Sea area.
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt - Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt: Pharaoh is a title used to describe the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. Meaning "Great House", it originally referred to the king's palace.
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt - King Lists
There are several important King Lists that provide details of Ancient Egypt's Pharaohs.
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt - Hor-Aha - Dynasty 1
Hor-Aha: First King of the First Dynasty, his name means 'Fighting Hawk'. His Nebti name 'Men' appear side by side on ivory labels.
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt - Hotepsekhemwy - Dynasty 2
Hotepsekhemwy - Dynasty 2: Hotepsekhemwy is the founder of the second dynasty. The Horus Name (Hotepsekhemwy) was the royal titulary most important name in this period; it was received at the accession.
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt - Djer - Dynasty 1
Djer - Dynasty 1: Second King of the First Dynasty Horus Djer (Manetho's Athothis) or Itit (his nomen) is said to have reigned for 57 years. Son of Aha and Hent (or Khenthap), built a palace at Memphis.
- Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt - Djet - Dynasty 1
Djet - Dynasty 1: Third King of the First Dynasty, also referred to as Uadji (Wadj and Zet), his tomb is located at Abydos (Tomb Z).